Origins of the papal tiara

The origins of the papal tiara remain somewhat nebulous and clouded in mystery, first appearing in the Early Middle Ages, but developing a recognizable form in the High Middle Ages, after the Great Schism of 1054. The word tiara itself occurs in the classical annals to denote a Persian headdress, particularly that of the “great king”.[lower-alpha 1] A camelaucum which was similar in shape to papal tiaras, was part of court dress in Byzantium; it was also inspired by the Phrygian cap, or frigium. Given that other rituals associated with the Papal Coronation, notably the use of the sedia gestatoria, were copied from Byzantine and eastern imperial ceremonial, it is likely that the tiara is also of Byzantine origin.

This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2020)
Achaemenid king Darius I with the typical Persian cap.

. . . Origins of the papal tiara . . .

Pope Gregory the Great wearing the camelaucum.

A form of papal crown is first mentioned in the vita of Pope Constantine (8th century) contained in the Liber Pontificalis; there it is called a camelaucum, a folded cap of white linen that was part of Byzantine court dress. A contemporary depiction of Gregory the Great (died 604) shows such a cap. Coins of Pope Sergius III (904-11) and Pope Benedict VII (974-983) depict these popes wearing such a helmet-like-cap augmented at the base with a single coronet-like fillet.

It subsequently was mentioned (using the word phrygium) in the supposed Donation of Constantine which is a forgery embedded among the forged Decretals in the early 9th century:

 the diadem, that is, the crown of our head, and at the same time the tiara and also the shoulder-band – that is, the strap that usually surrounds our imperial neck 

The first use of the word tiara to indicate the papal headgear is in the life of Paschal II in the Liber Pontificalis and dates to the 12th century.[1][2]

Pope Leo VIII (963–964) in helmet-shaped tiara

Popes since ancient times had worn some sort of head covering. By the 9th century it would appear that this took the form of a helmet-shaped white head-cap. Pope Gregory the Great (r. 590–604) is shown in contemporary artwork wearing such a headpiece. When exactly it developed its first lower tiara is unclear, though the Catholic Encyclopaedia speculates that it was in or around the 10th century, perhaps to distinguish the ceremonial papal head covering from the ecclesiastical one, the Mitre, which appeared around this era. The first explicit mention of the word tiara associated with the papacy appears in the account of the life of Pope Paschal II (r1099-1118) in the Liber Pontificalis.

A decorated circlet or ornamental band which may be the origins of the first tier of the tiara, is shown on coins of Pope Sergius III (r. 904–911) and Pope Benedict VII (r. 974–983).

The Extultet Barberini, dated around 1087, shows an early version of the tiara, with lower band and a crosshatch pattern on the conical tiara.[3][4] A similar tiara is shown on Innocent III in a fresco at Sacro Speco from about 1219 and on a mosaic from Old Saint Peter’s, now in the Museo di Roma.[5] A similar tiara, conical and with only one crown at the base, is seen worn by pope Clement IV in frescoes from the 13th century in Pernes-les-Fontaines, France and at his tomb in Viterbo. Also in Viterbo is the tomb of Hadrian V by Arnolfo di Cambio, with a similar tiara. The tomb of Honorius IV in Santa Maria in Ara Coeli also presents the tiara with one crown with gems at the bottom and topped with a large gem.[6] The tomb of Gregory X (1271-1276) shows him wearing a similar tiara, with the base a full crown and a textured and decorated conical body.[4][7] A fresco by Buffalmacco in the Arezzo cathedral depicts Gregory X wearing a similar tiara with black lappets.

. . . Origins of the papal tiara . . .

This article is issued from web site Wikipedia. The original article may be a bit shortened or modified. Some links may have been modified. The text is licensed under “Creative Commons – Attribution – Sharealike” [1] and some of the text can also be licensed under the terms of the “GNU Free Documentation License” [2]. Additional terms may apply for the media files. By using this site, you agree to our Legal pages . Web links: [1] [2]

. . . Origins of the papal tiara . . .

© 2022 The Grey Earl INFO - WordPress Theme by WPEnjoy