Battle of Toulon (1944)

Battle of Toulon
Part of Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre and the European Theatre of World War II
Date 15–28 August 1944
Toulon, southern France
Result Allied victory
 United States
Commanders and leaders
Edgard de Larminat Heinrich Ruhfus [de]
Johannes Bäßler (DOW)
France: 52,000 men 18,000 men[note 1]
Casualties and losses
2,700 killed and wounded 1,000 killed
17,000 captured
  1. 9,700 from Army, 5,500 from Air force and 2,800 Sailors
This article is about the Battle of Toulon in World War II. For other uses, see Battle of Toulon (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with the Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon in 1942.

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (July 2015)Click [show] for important translation instructions.
  • View a machine-translated version of the French article.
  • Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.
  • Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article.
  • You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Bataille de Toulon (1944)]]; see its history for attribution.
  • You should also add the template {{Translated|fr|Bataille de Toulon (1944)}} to the talk page.
  • For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

The Battle of Toulon (1944) was an urban battle of World War II in southern France that took place August 20–26, 1944 and led to the liberation of Toulon by Free French forces under the command of General Edgard de Larminat.

. . . Battle of Toulon (1944) . . .

View of downtown Toulon and Mediterranean Sea from Mount Faron

Toulon was the main port for the French Navy (French: Marine nationale, “national navy”), informally “La Royale”. On 27 November 1942, German troops had attacked the port, with the intention of seizing the French fleet, the subsequent fight lasted just long enough to scuttle the 75 warships, the pride of France.[1]:26

After the successful execution of Operation Overlord, the Normandy landings, attention shifted to the south. Most ports in the north were unusable, or too heavily fortified (e.g. Cherbourg, Brest, Lorient, Saint Nazaire), which made seizure and control of the French ports at Marseille and Toulon increasingly attractive.[2] The French leaders pressed for an invasion in southern France, too. Finally, after many delays, on 14 July, Operation Dragoon was authorized by the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff.[3][4]

Toulon was not a good target for an amphibious assault, it was well defended from a seaborne assault, so it would have to be taken from the land. The land approaches were also defended. A 700m high hill provided excellent artillery and observation positions. Ridges nearby were protected by French pillboxes. In 1941–2, as a token of goodwill to the Germans, the Government of Vichy France strengthened the defences.[1]:78 These defences were strengthened further by the Germans who took equipment off the scuttled French fleet ships, installing two 340mm turrets and 75 medium-sized guns along the coast.[1]:78

On 13 August as part of Operation Nutmeg, the 17th Bombardment Group attacked Toulon Harbour twice, with Martin B-26 Marauder aircraft, experiencing heavy anti aircraft fire.[1]:101

The groundwork was laid by the Allied invasion of southern France in Operation Dragoon on 15 August by the United States Seventh Army under General Patch, with support from the French First Army. Patch gave the order to General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny to take the cities of Toulon and Marseille, which were to be attacked simultaneously with de Larminat in charge of attacking Toulon.

. . . Battle of Toulon (1944) . . .

This article is issued from web site Wikipedia. The original article may be a bit shortened or modified. Some links may have been modified. The text is licensed under “Creative Commons – Attribution – Sharealike” [1] and some of the text can also be licensed under the terms of the “GNU Free Documentation License” [2]. Additional terms may apply for the media files. By using this site, you agree to our Legal pages . Web links: [1] [2]

. . . Battle of Toulon (1944) . . .

© 2022 The Grey Earl INFO - WordPress Theme by WPEnjoy