Siphoviridae

Siphoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNAviruses in the order Caudovirales. Bacteria and archaea serve as natural hosts. There are 1,166 species in this family, assigned to 366 genera and 22 subfamilies.[2][3] The characteristic structural features of this family are a nonenveloped head and noncontractile tail.

Family of viruses

Siphoviridae
TME picture of an Escherichia virus HK97 virion, Siphoviridae
Virus classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Duplodnaviria
Kingdom: Heunggongvirae
Phylum: Uroviricota
Class: Caudoviricetes
Order: Caudovirales
Family: Siphoviridae
Genera

see text

Synonyms[1]
  • Styloviridae

. . . Siphoviridae . . .

Typical structure of a siphovirus

Viruses in Siphoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and head-tail geometries[2] (morphotype B1) or a prolate capsid (morphotype B2), and T=7 symmetry. The diameter is around 60 nm.[2] Members of this family are also characterized by their filamentous, cross-banded, noncontractile tails, usually with short terminal and subterminal fibers. Genomes are double stranded and linear, around 50 kb in length,[2] containing about 70 genes. The guanine/cytosine content is usually around 52%.

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the replicative transposition model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, and +1 ribosomal frameshifting. The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and holin/endolysin/spanin proteins.[2] Bacteria and archaea serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.[2]

Electron micrographs of siphovirus from Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes). Phages were negatively stained and subjected to transmission electron microscopy. The phages have a head of approximately 55 nm in diameter, loaded with genetic material. Their tails have a size of 150 × 10 nm and are flexible and non-contractile. In the lower micrograph, PAD25 is adhering to bacterial cell debris, and two phages have lost their heads. All phages were classified as Siphoviruses based on their morphology.[4]

The following subfamilies are recognized:[3]

  • Arquatrovirinae
    • Arquatrovirus
    • Camvirus
    • Likavirus
  • Azeredovirinae
    • Dubowvirus
    • Phietavirus
  • Bclasvirinae
    • Acadianvirus
    • Coopervirus
    • Pregunavirus
    • Pipefishvirus
    • Rosebushvirus
  • Bronfenbrennervirinae
    • Biseptimavirus
    • Peevelvirus
  • Chebruvirinae
    • Brujitavirus
  • Dclasvirinae
    • Hawkeyvirus
    • Plotvirus
  • Deejayvirinae
    • Kenoshvirus
    • Secretariavirus
    • Tanisvirus
  • Dolichocephalovirinae
    • Berteleyvirus
    • Colossusvirus
    • Poidextervirus
    • Spirovirus
  • Gochnauervirinae
    • Dragolirvirus
    • Harrisonvirus
    • Vegavirus
    • Wandersvirus
  • Guernseyvirinae
    • Cornelivirus
    • Jerseyvirus
    • Kagunavirus
  • Gutmannvirinae
    • Carmenvirus
    • Pobcunavirus
  • Hendrixvirinae
    • Brynievirus
    • Cauhtlivirus
    • Kwaitsingvirus
    • Nochtlivirus
    • Sainkungvirus
    • Shamshuipovirus
    • Wainchavirus
    • Wongtaivirus
    • Yautsimvirus
  • Langleyhallvirinae
    • Getalongvirus
    • Horusvirus
    • Phystavirus
  • Mccleskeyvirinae
    • Limdunavirus
    • Unaquatrovirus
  • Mclasvirinae
    • Bongovirus
    • Reyvirus
  • Nclasvirinae
    • Bettesrvirus
    • Charlievirus
    • Redivirus
  • Nymbaxtervirinae
    • Baxtervirus
    • Nymphaduravirus
  • Pclasvirinae
    • Bignuzvirus
    • Fisburnevirus
    • Phayoncevirus
  • Queuovirinae
    • Amoyvirus
    • Nipunavirus
    • Nonagvirus
    • Seuratvirus
  • Skryabinvirinae
    • Bambunaquatrovirus
    • Puchinovirus
  • Trabyvirinae
    • Jelitavirus
    • Slepowrronvirus
  • Tybeckvirinae
    • Douglasvirus
    • Lenusvirus
    • Lideunavirus
    • Maenadvirus

The following genera are unassigned to a subfamily:[3]

  • Abbeymikolonvirus
  • Abidjanvirus
  • Agmunavirus
  • Aguilavirus
  • Ahduovirus
  • Alachuavirus
  • Alegriavirus
  • Amigovirus
  • Anatolevirus
  • Andrewvirus
  • Andromedavirus
  • Annadreamyvirus
  • Appavirus
  • Apricotvirus
  • Arawnvirus
  • Armstrongvirus
  • Ashduovirus
  • Attisvirus
  • Attoomivirus
  • Audreyjarvisvirus
  • Austintatiousvirus
  • Avanivirus
  • Bantamvirus
  • Barnyardvirus
  • Beceayunavirus
  • Beetrevirus
  • Behunavirus
  • Bernalvirus
  • Betterkatzvirus
  • Bievrevirus
  • Bingvirus
  • Bowservirus
  • Bridgettevirus
  • Britbratvirus
  • Bronvirus
  • Brussowvirus
  • Camtrevirus
  • Casadabanvirus
  • Cbastvirus
  • Cecivirus
  • Ceduovirus
  • Ceetrepovirus
  • Cequinquevirus
  • Chenonavirus
  • Cheoctovirus
  • Chertseyvirus
  • Chivirus
  • Chunghsingvirus
  • Cimpunavirus
  • Cinunavirus
  • Coetzeevirus
  • Colunavirus
  • Coralvirus
  • Corndogvirus
  • Cornievirus
  • Coventryvirus
  • Cronusvirus
  • Cukevirus
  • Daredevilvirus
  • Decurrovirus
  • Delepquintavirus
  • Demosthenesvirus
  • Detrevirus
  • Deurplevirus
  • Dhillonvirus
  • Dinavirus
  • Dismasvirus
  • Doucettevirus
  • Edenvirus
  • Efquatrovirus
  • Eiauvirus
  • Eisenstarkvirus
  • Elerivirus
  • Emalynvirus
  • Eyrevirus
  • Fairfaxidumvirus
  • Farahnazvirus
  • Fattrevirus
  • Feofaniavirus
  • Fernvirus
  • Fibralongavirus
  • Fowlmouthvirus
  • Franklinbayvirus
  • Fremauxvirus
  • Fromanvirus
  • Gaiavirus
  • Galaxyvirus
  • Galunavirus
  • Gamtrevirus
  • Gesputvirus
  • Getseptimavirus
  • Ghobesvirus
  • Gilesvirus
  • Gillianvirus
  • Gilsonvirus
  • Glaedevirus
  • Godonkavirus
  • Goodmanvirus
  • Gordonvirus
  • Gordtnkvirus
  • Gorganvirus
  • Gorjumvirus
  • Gustavvirus
  • Halcyonevirus
  • Hattifnattvirus
  • Hedwigvirus
  • Helsingorvirus
  • Hiyaavirus
  • Hnatkovirus
  • Holosalinivirus
  • Homburgvirus
  • Hubeivirus
  • Iaduovirus
  • Ikedavirus
  • Ilzatvirus
  • Incheonvrus
  • Indlulamithivirus
  • Inhavirus
  • Jacevirus
  • Jarrellvirus
  • Jenstvirus
  • Jouyvirus
  • Juiceboxvirus
  • Junavirus
  • Kairosalinivirus
  • Kamchatkavirus
  • Karimacvirus
  • Kelleziovirus
  • Kilunavirus
  • Klementvirus
  • Knuthellervirus
  • Kojivirus
  • Konstantinevirus
  • Korravirus
  • Kostyavirus
  • Krampusvirus
  • Kryptosalinivirus
  • Kuleanavirus
  • Labanvirus
  • Lacnuvirus
  • Lacusarxvirus
  • Lafunavirus
  • Lambdavirus
  • Lambovirus
  • Lanavirus
  • Larmunavirus
  • Laroyevirus
  • Latrobevirus
  • Leicestervirus
  • Lentavirus
  • Liebevirus
  • Liefievirus
  • Lillamyvirus
  • Lokivirus
  • Lomovskayavirus
  • Luckybarnesvirus
  • Luckytenvirus
  • Lughvirus
  • Lwoffvirus
  • Magadivirus
  • Majavirus
  • Manhattanvirus
  • Mapvirus
  • Mardecavirus
  • Marienburgvirus
  • Marvinvirus
  • Maxrubnervirus
  • Mementomorivirus
  • Metamorphoovirus
  • Minunavirus
  • Moineauvirus
  • Montyvirus
  • Mudcatvirus
  • Mufasoctovirus
  • Muminvirus
  • Murrayvirus
  • Nanhaivirus
  • Nazgulvirus
  • Neferthenavirus
  • Nesevirus
  • Nevevirus
  • Nickievirus
  • Nonanavirus
  • Nyceiraevirus
  • Oengusvirus
  • Omegavirus
  • Oneupvirus
  • Orchidvirus
  • Oshimavirus
  • Pahexavirus
  • Pamexvirus
  • Pankowvirus
  • Papyrusvirus
  • Patiencevirus
  • Pepyhexavirus
  • Phifelvirus
  • Picardvirus
  • Pikminvirus
  • Pleeduovirus
  • Pleetrevirus
  • Poushouvirus
  • Predatorvirus
  • Priunavirus
  • Psavirus
  • Psimunavirus
  • Pulverervirus
  • Questintvirus
  • Quhwahvirus
  • Radostvirus
  • Raleighvirus
  • Ravarandavirus
  • Ravinvirus
  • Rerduovirus
  • Rigallicvirus
  • Rimavirus
  • Rockefellervirus
  • Rockvillevirus
  • Rogerhendrixvirus
  • Ronaldovirus
  • Roufvirus
  • Rowavirus
  • Ruthyvirus
  • Samistivirus
  • Samunavirus
  • Samwavirus
  • Sandinevirus
  • Sanovirus
  • Sansavirus
  • Saphexavirus
  • Sashavirus
  • Sasvirus
  • Saundersvirus
  • Sawaravirus
  • Scapunavirus
  • Schnabeltiervirus
  • Schubertvirus
  • Seongbukvirus
  • Septimatrevirus
  • Seussvirus
  • Sextaecvirus
  • Skunavirus
  • Slashvirus
  • Sleepyheadvirus
  • Smoothievirus
  • Sonalivirus
  • Soupsvirus
  • Sourvirus
  • Sozzivirus
  • Sparkyvirus
  • Spbetavirus
  • Spizizenvirus
  • Squashvirus
  • Squirtyvirus
  • Stanholtvirus
  • Steinhofvirus
  • Sukhumvitvirus
  • Tandoganvirus
  • Tankvirus
  • Tantvirus
  • Terapinvirus
  • Teubervirus
  • Thetabobvirus
  • Tigunavirus
  • Timquatrovirus
  • Tinduovirus
  • Titanvirus
  • Tortellinivirus
  • Triavirus
  • Trigintaduovirus
  • Trinavirus
  • Trinevirus
  • Triplejayvirus
  • Unahavirus
  • Uwajimavirus
  • Vashvirus
  • Vedamuthuvirus
  • Vendettavirus
  • Vhulanivirus
  • Vidquintavirus
  • Vieuvirus
  • Vividuovirus
  • Vojvodinavirus
  • Waukeshavirus
  • Wbetavirus
  • Weaselvirus
  • Whackvirus
  • Whiteheadvirus
  • Wildcatvirus
  • Wilnyevirus
  • Wizardvirus
  • Woesvirus
  • Woodruffvirus
  • Xiamenvirus
  • Xipdecavirus
  • Yangvirus
  • Yonseivirus
  • Yuavirus
  • Yvonnevirus
  • Zetavirus

. . . Siphoviridae . . .

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. . . Siphoviridae . . .

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