Yaruro language

The Yaruro language (also spelled Llaruro or Yaruru; also called Yuapín or Pumé) is an indigenous language spoken by Yaruro people, along the Orinoco, Cinaruco, Meta, and Apure rivers of Venezuela. It is not well classified; it may be an isolate, or distantly related to the extinct Esmeralda language.

Indigenous language spoken in Venezuela
Yaruro
Pumé
Region Venezuela
Ethnicity Yaruro people
Native speakers
7,900 (2001 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 yae
Glottolog pume1238
ELP Yaruro

. . . Yaruro language . . .

Pache (2016) considers Yaruro to be related to the Chocoan languages, citing evidence from lexical and sound correspondences. Some shared lexical items between Yaruro and Chocoan (Pache (2016) cites Yaruro and Epena forms from the Intercontinental Dictionary Series):[2]

Yaruro Chocoan
dac͡ço ‘eye, face,’ c͡ço ‘seed, fruit, nut’ Epenatautʰu ‘forehead’
da ‘eye’ (used in complex forms) Proto-Chocoan **da ‘eye region,’ **da-ˈbu ‘eye,’ Epena ˈtau ‘eye’
duɾi ‘after’ Proto-Chocoan **duˈɾi ‘tail’
ɡõã ‘meat, flesh,’ goe ‘blood’ Proto-Emberá *uˈa ‘blood’
hu ‘bone,’ hu c͡çia ‘strong’ Proto-Chocoan **huˈa ‘arm, hand,’ Epena huaˈtau ‘strong’
i ‘skin’ Proto-Emberá *ˈe ‘skin’
ĩbu ‘nose’ Proto-Chocoan **kẽˈbu ‘nose’
ic͡çi ‘hand’ Epena iˈsia ‘wing’

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Saliba-Hodi, Arawak, Bora-Muinane, Choko, Witoto-Okaina, and Waorani language families due to contact.[3]

Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t c k ʔ
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts
voiced dz
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced v ð ʒ
Rhotic ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant w j

. . . Yaruro language . . .

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. . . Yaruro language . . .

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